Company Records

a pair of glasses resting on an accountancy textbookPATC defines company records as any documents, accounts, books, writing, records or other information that a company is required to keep in terms of the Companies Act 71 of 2008, or any other public regulations.

The Companies Act states in Section 24 that records should be retained in writing or in a form that can be converted into a written format for a period of seven (7) years unless a longer period is stated in other legislation. (more…)

VAT Registration & Deregistration

three stacks of coins with scrabble tiles stacked on them to spell out VATWho Should Register for VAT?

Any person that carries on business may register for VAT. You can register once for all different tax types using the client information system. The term person is not only limited to companies but also includes, amongst others, individuals, partnerships, trust funds, foreign donor-funded projects and municipalities. In order to register, an application form must be completed, and a specific process must be followed, both of which you can find on our page how to register for VAT. (more…)


a close up of someone signing a contract with a nib penClassification of Leases

A lease is classified as a finance lease if it transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incident to ownership. All other leases are classified as operating leases. Classification is made at the inception of the lease. (more…)

Donations Tax: Estate Duty

lots of paperwork, a computer mouse, a coffee cup and a penWhat is Estate Duty?

Estate Duty is payable on the estate of every person who dies and whose nett estate is in excess of R3.5 million. It is charged at the rate of 20%. Estate duty is levied on the property of residents and South African property of nonresidents less allowable deductions. The duty is levied on the dutiable value of an estate at a rate of 20% on the first R30 million and at a rate of 25% above R30 million. A basic deduction of R3.5 million is allowed in the determination of an estate’s liability for estate duty as well as deductions for liabilities, bequests to public benefit organisations and property accruing to surviving spouses. (more…)

Employees Taxation

a closeup of calculator, highlighter, income tax textbooks and formsPersonal Service Company or Trust

This is a company (or trust as the case may be) that is not a labour broker, and whose services to clients are performed on its behalf by a connected person;

  • and such a person would be regarded as an employee of the client if the relationship was directly between the person and the client; or
  • the person fails the control and supervision test; or
  • the person fails the regular payments test; or
  • more than 80% of the income of the company/trust from services rendered is directly or indirectly from the client;


Liquidation Procedures of All Entities

PATC reveals the financial significance of foreign exchange transactionsLiquidation is the process of bringing a business to an end and distributing its assets to claimants. It is an event that usually occurs when a company is insolvent, meaning it cannot pay its obligations when they come due. As company operations end, the remaining assets are used to pay creditors and shareholders, based on the priority of their claims,

Liquidation and deregistration are not the same things. (more…)

Defining Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)

various notes of south african currencyCapital Expenditure (CAPEX) Capital expenditure, or CapEx, are funds used by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets such as property, industrial buildings or equipment. It is often used to undertake new projects or investments by the firm.

This type of outlay is also made by companies to maintain or increase the scope of their operations. These expenditures can include everything from repairing a roof to building, to purchasing a piece of equipment or building a brand-new factory. (more…)

Understanding Foreign Exchange

various world currency notesA foreign currency transaction should be recorded initially at the rate of exchange at the date of the transaction (use of averages is permitted if they are a reasonable approximation of actual).

At each subsequent balance sheet date, foreign currency monetary amounts should be reported using the closing rate non-monetary items, carried at historical cost should be reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items carried at fair value should be reported at the rate that existed when the fair values were determined. (more…)